Who was Dr John More?

An essay by Richard H. Turner – July 2018

John More, a Catholic recusant physician, has been a footnote figure – having left behind almost no writings of his own, a somewhat shadowy bit-part player on the early Stuart public stage. This essay draws on contemporary national, local, ecclesiastical, medical and family records, as well as subsequent historical and biographical material, to establish his contribution to the social, political and economic context of his times. Again and again paradox is encountered, exemplifying Shakespeare’s observation that – in the seventeenth century at any rate – ‘one man in his time plays many parts’. Underlying Dr More’s activities and aspirations can be detected ambition to advance both his religion and his kin. Consequently he and his heirs became involved, over three generations, in numerous and contrasting fields of action – medicine, politics, commerce, military service, the Church, landholding. As with all human endeavour, the actual outcomes reflect the impact of unforeseeable events, social change, personal foibles, and mere chance. Part 2 of this essay examines this working out of his legacy – both religious and material – by his heirs, in search of a fuller answer to the question Who was Dr John More?


This is a comprehensive essay in two parts, with extensive appendices and endnotes. It is presented in the form of 20 PDF files, accessible from the menu below. Each PDF will open in a separate tab, so that the reader may easily toggle between two or more files.

Author’s Note
Prefatory Comments
Article Contents

Part 1 – a Multifaceted Career
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5

Part 2 – Who was Dr John More?
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
Appendix 9
Appendix 10
Appendix 11

MORE of Thelwall and Kirklington
Descendants of VAUDREY of Riddings and Bank
Descendants of WHITMORE of Thursaston
MORE and related families

The author, Richard H. Turner, may be contacted directly at kirklington@yahoo.com

More about two 17th Century Catholic books

By Nigel H. Sinnott, Sunshine, Victoria, Australia

“Many a man lives a burden to the earth; but a good book is the precious life-blood
of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life.”
– John Milton, Areopagitica (1644).

In the June 1991 issue of Biblionews I recounted my discovery, as a boy in the 1950s, of two seventeenth-century books in a Nissen hut on what had been a Second World War aerodrome in north Oxfordshire.1 The airfield occupied a tract of land between the villages of Enstone, Great Tew and Sandford St. Martin, and extended to the hamlet of Gagingwell, where I lived.

The books were the Lyricorum Libri IV of Mathia Casimirus Sarbievius, or Fr. Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, S.J. (1595 – 1640), also known as Casimire2, published “ex Officina Plantiniana” (from the Plantin Workshop) by Balthasar Moretus3 of Antwerp in 1634, and a purportedly third edition of the Traité de la regale, perhaps by the Abbé Du Buisson, published by Nicolas Schouten of Cologne in 1681. The first book contained the Late Latin poetry of a celebrated Polish Jesuit; the second was a defence of the Bishop of “Pamies” (Pamiers, France), François Étienne de Caulet, who was involved in a protracted church-and-state dispute with King Louis XIV.

I thought it most unlikely that the books had simply been left behind by a serviceman at the end of the Second World War and, in view of the similarity of the vellum bindings, I assumed that the books must have come either from the private library of a local Recusant family or from a Catholic theological library. I made a few inquiries at the time of writing my earlier article, but nobody claimed the books or knew where they had come from.

In 1995 the Oxfordshire Family History Society, of which I am a member, announced the publication of Thames Valley Papists, by Recusant historian Tony Hadland. I wrote to Tony, told him about the two old books I had found, and asked for his help. He transcribed my Biblionews article to his computer and put the text on his web-site4, in the hope that someone might read it and offer further information. Nobody did.

In 2001, while researching other matters, Tony Hadland made two discoveries. First, there had been a Catholic mission at Enstone from 1753 until 1840, and secondly the Recusant Browne-Mostyn family of Kiddington (a village I knew quite well) had had a domestic chapel, “served by Jesuits until at least 1750, Benedictines until 1825”. The chapel had closed in 1840, “when a new chapel at Radford took over (closed 1969)”.

Radford was also very near where I found the books, and I remembered there being a convent at Radford when I was a boy. I had also met Fr. Cyril Bennett, who had been based at Radford in the 1950s. Had the Browne-Mostyns perhaps given their theological books to the new convent?

As the Radford convent had closed, Tony suggested I write to the archivist of the Catholic Archdiocese of Birmingham. I sent an e-mail message to the address Tony gave me, and soon had a reply from the archivist, John Sharp. He informed me that the archdiocese did not hold records of Radford Convent, but he gave me the Birmingham address of the archivist of the Sisters of Charity of St. Paul the Apostle, and recommended that I write to her. I followed this advice, and received a reply from Sister Anne Cunningham. She could find no record of Radford Convent acquiring any rare or very old books, and concluded that “the Convent would have had only school books and the usual devotional books”.

This was disappointing as, if the books had been at Radford, I had a theory to account for their appearance at nearby Gagingwell.

However, Tony Hadland also gave me the address of the Rt. Revd. Monsignor Vaughan Morgan of Charlbury, Oxfordshire, whose jurisdiction includes Radford. On receiving a letter from me he did some investigating, and came up with evidence that made the Radford link seem very plausible again. He replied that, if the two old books had once been at Radford, they were more likely to have been held at the presbytery than the convent. “The mission at Radford was founded when the Browne-Mostyn family sold Kiddington Hall with its chapel. This was in 1840 (the date of the opening of the church at Radford). It is possible that books belonging to the former chaplains at Kiddington Hall were passed on to Radford. Fr Bulbeck who left this parish in 1997 certainly sold some old books.”

So, if the books had been in the Radford presbytery, how did I find them in a Nissen hut?

After the Second World War several families squatted in some of the disused air force huts on the aerodrome until they were gradually rehoused by the local council. My friend A (as I will call her here) belonged to the last family of squatters to remain. She lived about a hundred and fifty metres from where I found the books. She had also been befriended by Fr. Bennett of Radford, and was interested in becoming a Catholic. In fact I thought she had joined the Catholic Church until Monsignor Morgan informed me that there was no record of A’s baptism in the Radford registers.

Now A probably saw Fr. Bennett most of the time on his visits to Gagingwell, but if she had shown serious interest in the Catholic Church, she might on occasion have had to go to Radford to take instruction.

My friend A was both conscientious and meticulously honest, and would certainly not have taken the old books from the Radford presbytery. Her brothers B and C, however, might have been less scrupulous: indeed, I saw little of them because they were juvenile guests of Her Majesty for an extended period following an altercation or two over other people’s property. More recently I have received unconfirmed reports that the brothers are now sober and respectable citizens. But in their youth they were a tad wayward, and if on one occasion they had accompanied A on a visit to Radford, who know what temptations might have arisen while A and Fr. Bennett were absorbed in discussion of the finer details of the catechism!

If B and C did take the books, they might have dumped them once they realised they were in foreign languages, and of no use to them. Or their sister might have discovered what A and B had done, confiscated the “loot”, but might have felt unable to return the books to Radford for fear of getting her brothers into (more) trouble. Of course, if the books had been at Radford, someone else might have taken them – but most people would be unlikely to leave them fifty metres from the cottage where I lived.

However, two or three tramps had Gagingwell as part of their “beat”, and it is possible that a tramp may have purloined the books from Radford while calling at the presbytery to ask for hot water or food, and then camped at Gagingwell overnight. Tramps regularly called at the Sinnotts’ cottage; and the nearby airfield huts offered plenty of dry overnight shelter. Anyway, B and C and their light fingers, or a passing tramp, are the most plausible explanations I can come up with after half a century of puzzling over the provenance of the two books.

This, however, is not the end of the story. While I was busy corresponding from Australia with Tony Hadland, Monsignor Morgan and others in England, an extraordinary coincidence occurred on another continent.

For many years I have corresponded with the writer, editor, printer and publisher Fred Woodworth in the United States. Fred is probably best known as editor and publisher of The Match!, a magazine about anarchism and freethought. But he also produces The Mystery and Adventure Series Review, which caters for collectors of old mystery and adventure stories. Fred collects old calculating and printing machines, and is very proud of the fact that all his printing and publishing are done without the aid of modern electronic computers. To quote him: “No computer equipment is ever used here.”

One day Fred Woodworth arrived at his local post office in Tucson, Arizona, in a hurry. I think his parking meter was about to expire. In his haste to dispatch his outgoing mail Fred accidentally let an envelope, addressed to me, slip inside a larger envelope, addressed to someone else.

The larger envelope was sealed and posted to Belgium, where it was received on 29 June 2001 by Christophe Martens of St.-Denijs-Westrem. At first he thought the envelope with my name and address on it was something that Fred Woodworth had recycled, but when Christophe opened the smaller envelope he deduced that Fred had made a mistake. Christophe added a short letter of his own, resealed the envelope, put some Belgian stamps on it, and posted it by air to Australia.

I received the envelope – now with two letters inside – a few days later, and wrote to thank Christophe Martens for his helpfulness. I mentioned that I had a seventeenth-century book, published in Belgium, and added that, if I ever got a chance to visit Belgium, I would like to go round the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp. (Tony Hadland had visited it as a teenager and had been much impressed with the place.)5 The museum occupies the building where Sarbiewski’s Lyricorum Libri IV was published, and is full of antiquarian books and historic type and printing equipment. I added to my letter a copy of my article by way of further explanation.

Christophe Martens replied by informing me that, like me, he had grown up near an abandoned airfield. In his case the airfield had been used during the German occupation of Belgium by the Luftwaffe, and afterwards by a Polish wing of the R.A.F. Like me, he had spent a lot of time exploring the deserted hangars, runways and buildings. Furthermore, Christophe had a reader’s ticket for the Plantin-Moretus Museum’s library. “Whenever I’m in Antwerp I try to visit this wonderful museum.” And he added: “I think it’s the only place in the world where a fully equipped sixteenth and seventeenth century printshop can be admired.” Christophe included two brochures from the museum, and a circular from the Plantin Genootschap, a postgraduate institute of printing and graphic arts, based at the museum.

On 18 August 2001 I received a package from Belgium. It contained a gift from Christophe Martens: a copy of Maurice Sabbe’s L’Œuvre de Christophe Plantin et de ses successeurs (207 pp.), published in Brussels in 1937.6 The book was in almost perfect condition, and the pages were still uncut!

The two old books have not only intrigued me, they have greatly enriched my life and expanded my knowledge since I chanced upon them half a century ago; and now they have been joined by a third book. I am very grateful to everyone who has helped me in my quest for information. I now know a fair amount about the Plantin and Moretus families, who were Antwerp’s most famous printers. (They even secured the artist Peter Paul Rubens to design some of their title pages.) My next task – and I think it will be harder – is to find out more about Nicholas Schouten of Cologne, printer and publisher of the Traité de la regale.

Notes

  1. “Two Seventeenth-Century Catholic Books Found in Oxfordshire”.
  2. For accounts of Sarbiewski see the New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967 edn., vol. 12 (article by T. F. Domaradzki), and Julian Krzyżanowski, A History of Polish Literature (translated by Doris Ronowicz; Warsaw, 1978). The Augustan Reprint Society (University of California, Los Angeles) issued in 1953 a facsimile edition of The Odes of Casimire, translated by G. Hils (originally published London, 1646).
  3. Balthasar Moretus I (1574 – 1641), in charge of the printing house 1610-41, as distinct from his nephew and great-nephews, Balthasar II, III and IV. Moretus is the Latin form of Moerentorf. The firm was founded by Christophe Plantin (1520?-89), whose daughter Martine married Jan Moretus (1543 – 1610). Balthasar I was their son.
  4. Now https://hadland.wordpress.com (this site)
  5. I am grateful to Tony Hadland for lending me his copy of Dr. L. Voet’s English-language booklet, The Plantin-Moretus Museum (Antwerp: Museum Plantin-Moretus, 1965). There is also an account of the Plantin-Moretus publishing firm in Lucien Lefebre & Henri-Jean Martin, The Coming of the Book: the impact of printing 1450 –1880 (translated by David Gerard; London, 1984).
  6. Lefebre & Martin (note 5) drew extensively from Sabbe’s book for their account of the Plantin-Moretus firm.

__________

N. H. Sinnott
5 Moira Street,
Sunshine, Vic. 3020. Australia
nigelsinnott@optusnet.com.au
29 January 2002 rev. 9 July 2002

Two 17th Century Catholic Books found in Oxfordshire

By Nigel H. Sinnott, Sunshine, Victoria, Australia

During the 1950s, as a youngster in England, I lived in the Oxfordshire hamlet of Gagingwell (parish of Enstone). An airfield had been built in the area during the Second World War, and I used to spend a lot of my time exploring the old runways, roads, bomb shelters and buildings.

One day in about 1954 or ’55 I was wandering through an old Nissen hut near my home when I spotted some objects on a window-sill. On closer inspection they turned out to be two small seventeenth century books, bound in vellum.

I realised that the books were rare, and would deteriorate where they had been left, so I took them home and have looked after them ever since, bringing them out to Australia soon after my marriage in 1976.

The two books are on religious subjects, and are distinctly Catholic. Their bindings look rather similar and I have long suspected that they were originally part of a collection. In October I990 I decided to make some effort to check out the possibility that these books might have been stolen and dumped. This required examining the books closely and doing a bit of searching. Some of the results came as a surprise to me.

The older of the two books consists of 238 small pages (106 mm x 56 mm), and was published by Moretus of Antwerp in 1634. It is the Lyricorum Libri IV of the Polish priest, poet and teacher, Fr. Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, S.J. (1595-1640), who was also known as Sarbievius and Casimire. At the back is a section called the “Epicitharisma”, a series of tributes – also in Latin verse – to the author by some of his brother Jesuits. I suspect this is the second edition. The first edition of this cumulation, which had larger pages, was published at Antwerp in 1632; and there was probably an earlier cumulation, Lyricorum Libri III, published in 1625 (Rome?).

Sarbiewski was greatly esteemed as a poet in the seventeenth century: his work was first translated into English (The Odes of Casimire) as early as 1646 – and published in Puritan London! He has been described as “the Christian Horace” and as “Poland’s greatest neo-Latin poet”. He was also the friend and confessor of King Władysław IV. While in Rome (1622-25) Sarbiewski revised the Breviary and was presented with a poet’s wreath by Pope Urban VIII, to whom the Lyricorum Libri IV are dedicated.

The second book, whose significance I did not fully realise until I consulted a few bibliographies, consists of 360 pages (132 mm x 75 mm) and was published by Nicolas Schouten at Cologne in 1681. It is the “troisiesme edition” of the Traité de la regale. According to the title page it was printed “Par l’Ordre de Monſieur l’Evéque [sic] de Pamies, pour la défence des droits de ſon Egliſe”. It was probably written by the Abbé Du Buisson, vicar-general of Châlons, for François Etienne (de) Caulet (b. 1610), who was appointed Bishop of Pamiers (France) in 1644. The first edition appears to have been published at Cologne in 1680, but I cannot trace a second edition unless it is the first of two versions (1680 and 1681) of the book allegedly published in France, but without a place or publisher on the title pages.

The Traité presents the Bishop’s case in his protracted dispute with King Louis XIV (1638-1715) over the King’s efforts from 1673 to extend the regale (or régale)his right to the revenues and benefices of vacant bishoprics – to dioceses which, until then, had been customarily exempt. Most of the French hierarchy acceded to the King, except for Nicolas Pavillon (Bishop of Alet) and de Caulet. As a result, the diocese of Pamiers, which contained a high proportion of Protestants, was in a stage of virtual siege for three years. When the Bishop’s metropolitan told him to tow the royal line, de Caulet appealed to Pope Innocent XI for help – and got it! In 1679 the Pope threatened to excommunicate Louis. The Bishop died in 1680, but relations between Versailles and the Vatican remained tense. The Grand Alliance against Louis XIV was signed at Augsburg in 1686, and Pope Innocent XI became the Alliance’s staunch supporter.

Louis XIV was the same French king who in 1685 revoked the 1598 Edict of Nantes and, as a result, drove something like a quarter of a million Huguenots into exile. It is clear from the Traité that the “Sun King” was also a problem for any Catholics who had the courage to stand up to his centralising autocracy.

I was unable to find the Traité de la regale in the main British Library catalogue, but it is listed by the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.) and the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris). There are also useful accounts of Sarbiewski (by T.F. Domaradzki) and de Caulet (by L.L. Barnard) in the New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967 edition).1

Where could these old books have come from? A specialist library, especially a Catholic theological library, comes immediately to mind, but I have had no claim in response to letters to Heythrop College (now in London, but in the 1950s only a few kilometres from where I found the books), Campion Hall (Oxford) or the Bodleian Library. From the home of an old Catholic family? Well, possibly, but I am not aware of one in north Oxfordshire.2 Could the books have been left behind by a serviceman at the end of the Second World War? This is conceivable, but I doubt it. At the end of the War the airfield, once abandoned by the R.A.F., would have been picked over fairly thoroughly by souvenir hunters, squatters and passing children like me. Also, when I came across the books they were in excellent condition. I think they would have deteriorated markedly had they been lying for ten years on the window-sill where I found them.

The old Nissen hut was demolished some years ago, but the two Catholic books have survived. From their pages I have tried to unlock and unravel part of their stories. But their covers, alas, cannot speak. I suspect their authors would be pleased at the thought that, after more than three centuries, enough mystery remains to tantalise a rationalist.

(More about these books was subsequently discovered and there is another article about them on this website.)

Notes

1. There is also an account of Sarbiewski in Julian Krzyżanowski, A History of Polish Literature (translated by Doris Ronowicz from Dzieje Literatury Polskiej, 1972). Warsaw, 1978: 115 – 116.

2. I had discounted Radford Convent (ca. 1840 – 1969), as it was not a very old institution. However, Tony Hadland has pointed out that Radford superseded the private chapel of the Browne and Browne-Mostyn family at Kiddington (not to be confused with Kidlington), in existence from the seventeenth century until 1840, and he adds that this chapel was “served by Jesuits until at least 1750”. Is it possible, perhaps, that books from the Kiddington chapel were passed on to the convent at Radford?

Last Will & Testament of Dame Anastasia Mannock of Windsor

Transcript of Public Record Office ref. PROB11/1556 Dame Anastasia Mannock 99

Transcribed July 1994 by Tony Hadland from photocopies

[Transcriber’s notes shown thus]

[Page 1 commences]
This is the last Will and Testament of me Dame Anastasia Mannock of Windsor in the County of Berks Widow and relict of Sir Thomas Mannock late of Giffords Hall in the County of Suffolk Baronet decd in manner following that is to say I do hereby give & devise all that my Manor or Lordship or reputed Manor or Lordship of Metlyns [near Maxstoke Castle, Coleshill] in the County of Warwick with the Manor house Farms land tenements & heredits thereunto belonging And also all singular other the Messuages Farms Lands tenements and heredits which I am seized of or entitled to either at Law or in Equity in possession remainder or Expectancy in or within the several towns Fields Parishes or Precincts of Fillingly [Fillongley] Thustock [Shustoke] overfleet Hampstead [now part of Birmingham] & Stonely [Stoneleigh] in the said County of Warwick or elsewhere in Great Britain (excepting the Estates vested in me upon trust or by way of Mortgage) together with their & every of their rights members & appurts unto Nicholas Tuite Selby of Henrietta Street Covent Garden in the City & Liberty of Westminster Banker & John Wright of Henrietta Street aforesaid Banker their heirs To for & upon the several uses trusts interests & purposes & under and

[Page 2 commences]
subject to the several powers provisions limitations and declarations hereinafter mentioned expressed & declared of & concerning the same that is to say To the use of my Nephew Andrew Du Moulin An Officer in His Majesty’s first Somerset Regiment of Militia & his Assigns for and during the term of his natural life And from & after the determination of that Estate by Forfeiture or otherwise in his life time To the use of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright & their heirs during the natural life of the said Andrew Du Moulin upon trust in the usual manner to support & preserve the rentingout uses & Estates herein after limited from being defeated or destroyed but nevertheless to permit & suffer the said Andrew Du Moulin & his Assigns during his life to have receive & take the rents issues & profits of the said heredits & premises & every part thereof to & for his & their own use & benefit And from & after the decease of the said Andrew Du Moulin To the use of the first & every other Son of the said AndrewDu Moulin lawfully begotten or to be begotten severally successively & in remainder one after another in order & course as they shall respectively be in priority of birth & the heirs male of the body and respective bodies of such Son & Sons issuing the Elder of such Sons & the heirs male of his body issuing being always preferred & to take before the younger of such Sons & the heirs male of his & their body & respective bodies issuing And in default of such issue to the use of my Great Niece Elizabeth Du Moulin my God daughter daughter of the said Andrew Du Moulin in case the said Elizabeth Du Moulin shall be living at the time of the Failure or determination of the uses & Estates herein before limited precedent to the use or Estate so limited to her the said Elizabeth Du Moulin but not otherwise & her heirs & assigns for ever but in case the said Elizabeth Du Moulin shall be dead at the time of the Failure or determination of the uses or Estates precedent to the Estate so limited to her as aforesaid then & n such case the said Manor & other heredits hereinbefore devised shall from thenceforth remain & be to the only proper use & behest of my own right heirs for ever provided always & I do hereby declare & direct that it shall & may be lawful to & for the said Andrew Du Moulin at any time or times during his natural life And from and after his decease during the minority or respective minorities of any of the Sons of the said Andrew Du Moulin or of the issue male of any of such Sons for the time being entitled by virtue of the limitations aforesaid to the said Manor & other heredits in possession or to the rents & profits thereof To & for the Guardian or Guardians for the time being of any such Son or issue Male entitled as aforesaid by any Deed or Deeds indented sealed & delivered in the presence of two or more credible Witnesses to demise or let all or any part or parts of the said Manor & heredits to any person or persons for any term or number of years not exceeding seven years in possession but not in

[Page 3 commences]
reversion remainder or expectancy or by way of future Interest & so as upon every of such leases there be reserved & made payable during the continuance thereof to be interest to & go along with the reversion expectant thereon respectively the best & most improved yearly rent or rents that can be reasonably had or obtained for the same without taking any Sum or Sums of money or other thing by way of Fine or premium for or in respect of any such loans & so as such lessees respectively their respective Exors Admors or assigns be not made dispunishable of waste by any express words therein & so as in every such case there be contained a clause of reentry for non payment of the rent or rents to be thereby respectively received by the space of twenty eight days after the same or any part thereof shall become due & so as the respective lessees to whom such loans shall be made do seal and deliver Counterparts thereof respectively Provided always & I do hereby further declare & direct that it shall & may be lawful t & for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them or the Exors or Admors of such Survivor at any time or times hereafter at the request & by the direction of the said Andrew Du Moulin testified by some writing under his hand & seal & attested by two or more credible witnesses / to dispose of & convey either by way of absolute sale or in exchange for or in lieu of other heredits to be situate somewhere in that part of Great Britain called England all or any part of the said Manor or Lordship & other heredits respectively & the Inheritance thereof in fee simple to any person or persons whomsoever for such price or prices in money or for such equivalent or recompence [sic] in Manors Lands or heredits & with or without paying or receiving any Sum of money for equality of Exchange as to the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors or Admors shall seem reasonable And that for the purpose of effecting such dispositions or conveyances (but not for any other purpose) it shall and may be lawful to & for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors or Admors / with such consent & approbation as aforesaid by any Deed or Deeds Instrument or Instruments in writing sealed & delivered by him or them in the presence of & attested by two or more credible Witnesses absolutely to revoke determine & make void all & every or any of the uses trusts powers revisions limitations and declarations hereby limitted [sic] declared & expressed of and concerning the said Manor & other heredits or any part or parts thereof And by the same or any other Deed or Deeds Instrument or Instruments in Writing to limit and appoint any use or uses estate or estates trust or trusts of the said Manor & other heredits or any part or parts thereof which it shall be thought necessary or expedient to limit or appoint in order effectuate such sales dispositions & conveyances as aforesaid And also that upon payment of the monies arising by the sale of the said Manor & other heredits or of any monies to be received for equality of Exchange or any part thereof it shall & may be lawful to & for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors or Admors to give & sign receipts for the money for which

[Page 4 commences]
the same shall be sold or which shall be received for equality of Exchange & that such receipts shall be sufficient discharges to any purchasers or purchaser or person or persons paying such monies for equality of Exchange for the purchase monies for which the same shall be sold or for such monies so to be paid for equality of Exchange or for so much thereof as in such receipts shall be acknowledged or expressed to be received & that purchaser or purchasers or person or persons paying such monies for equality of exchange his her or their heirs Exors Admors or assigns shall not be accountable or answerable for any loss misapplication or nonapplication of such purchase or other money or any part thereof or be obliged or concerned to see to the applon [sic] thereof And I do hereby declare & direct that when all or any part of the said Manor & other heredits hereby limited shall be sold for a valuable consideration in money or any monies shall be received for equality of exchange as aforesaid the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors or Admors shall with all convenient speed with the consent & approbation + [insert from margin incomplete on photocopy from which this transcript was made] of the person for the time being entitled in possession to the said Manor & other heredits such person being of full age but if under age then with the consent of the Guardian or Guardians lay out & invest the monies to arise by such sale or sales Exchange or Exchanges as aforesaid in the purchase of other Manors Lands or Heredits in Fee simple in possession to be situate somewhere in that part of Great Britain called England of a clear & indefeasible Estate of Inheritance & either with or without Leasehold Copyhold or Customary Lands or Tenements lying contiguous to & convenient to be held with the heredits hereby limited or with any of the said Manors Lands or Heredits so to be purchased as aforesaid But so as such Leasehold Copyhold & Customary Lands or tenements do not exceed in the whole one third part in value of the lands tenements or heredits so to be purchased at any one time And I hereby further direct that the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors & Admors do & hall settle & assure or cause to be settled & assured as well the heredits so to be purchased as the heredits so to be received in Exchange as hereinbefore is mentioned to such & the same uses upon such & the same trusts & for such & the same intents & purposes & with under & subject to such & the same powers provisions conditions & declarations as are in & by this my Will limited expressed declared & contained of & concerning such of the said Manor & other heredits hereinbefore devised as aforesaid as shall be so sold or given in Exchange or as near thereto as the deaths of parties & other intervening incidents will then admit of Yet so that if any Lands so to be purchased as last is hereinbefore mentioned shall be held for any term or terms of years the same shall not vest absolutely for the purpose of transmission in any Son of the said Andrew Du Moulin who shall depart this life under the age of twenty one years without leaving issue male of his body living at the time of his decease or born in due time fterwards And also until the money arising by such sale or sales so to be received for equality of Exchange as aforesaid shall be disposed of in the manner hereinbefore mentioned it shall & may be lawful to & for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors & Admors by & with such consent & approbation as aforesaid to place out such Sum or Sums of money at Interest

[Page 5 commences]
either in the Parliamentary Stocks or Public Funds of Great Britain or upon real Securities in England or in the principality of Wales in the names or name of such trustees or trustee for the time being & to alter vary transfer & dispose of the said Stocks Funds & Securities as occasion shall be thought to require And I do hereby declare & direct that the Interest dividends & annual product arising or accruing from such Stocks Funds or Securities shall go & be paid to such person or persons & be applied to & for such uses intents and purposes & in such manner as the rents & profits of the heredits so to be purchased would be payable in case such purchases were then actually made [& I do hereby give bequeath & dispose of all my monies securities for money Goods Chattels Personal Estate & Effects whatsoever and wheresoever in manner following that is to say] I give all my Gold & Silver Plate unto the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright their Exors Admors & assigns upon trust to permit & suffer my Niece Barara Louise Baronne De Fages of Windsor in the County of Berks to have the use & enjoyment thereof for & during the term of her natural life for her own sole & separate use & benefit & free from the debts disposition or controul [sic] of her present or any future husband & from & after her decease In trust for such person or persons from time to time as for the time being shall be entitled in possession to my said Manor & other heredits hereinbefore devised provided that if any such person whomay [sic] become entitled in possession to all Estate in tail male in the said Manor & heredits by virtue of the limitations aforesaid shall happen to die under the age of twenty one years without leaving Issue male of his body living at his decease or born in due time afterwards then & so often as the same shall happen within the period of time in which Executory powers are allowed by Law to take place the same plate hereinbefore bequeathed shall go over to the next taker of my said Manor and other heredits according to the aforesaid limitations subject always to this proviso And I direct that a schedule or Inventory shall be taken of such plate & a duplicate made thereof & that the schedule & Duplicate shall be signed by the person for the time being entitled to such plate by virtue of this my will And that one part thereof shall be kept by the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors or Admors & the other by the person for the time being so entitled to the same as aforesaid And I gve to the said Barbara De Fages my Gold Enamelled Snuff Box & also all my Diamonds & other Jewels excepting the Star given to me by my cousin Barbara Rook of Charles Street Manchester Square which I hereby direct to be restored to the said Barbara Rook I give to the said Barbara Rook my unenamelled Gold Snuff Box And I give all my laces & table linen to my said Niece Barbara De Fages and Elizabeth Du Moulin now the Wife of the said Andrew Du Moulin to be divided between them in equal shares as tenants in Common And I give my common wearing apparel to Rachael Hedgenton my Cook & Mary Osborne my Servant or such of them as shall be living with me

[Page 6 commences]
at the time of my decease in equal shares if more than one [And I give & bequeath all my household furniture unto the said Nicholas Tulte Selby & John Wright their Exors & Admors & assigns upon trust as soon as conveniently may be after my decease to sell & dispose of the same by Public Auction or Private Contract & to stand possessed of the monies therefrom arising after payment of the necessary Expenses attending such sale In trust to place out or invest the same in or upon Government or real Securitys [sic] at Interest in his or their name or names And upon further trust to pay the dividends Interest or annual product thereof into the proper hands of the said last mentioned Elizabeth Du Moulin the Wife of the said Andrew Du Moulin or to the hands of such person or persons as she shall by any writing under her hand but not by way of anticipation appoint to receive the same during her life the receipts of the said Elisabeth [sic] Du Moulin or of such person or persons as she shall appoint as aforesaid to be alone sufficient discharges for the same To the interest that the same may be for her separate use independent [sic] of the said Andrew Du Moulin or any future husband And from & after her decease the said Monies hereinbefore directed to be placed out at Interest shall be In trust for all & every the Child & Children of the said last mentioned Elizabeth Du Moulin by the said Andrew Du Moulin living at the time of her decease who being a Son or Sons shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter or Daughters shall attain that age or marry to be divided between or among them if more than one in equal shares And if there shall be but one such Child living at her decease who being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter shall attain that age or marry the whole to be In trust for that one Child Provided always & I declare my Will to be that after the decease of the said last mentioned Elizabeth Du Moulin & in the mean time & until the vesting of the portions hereinbefore provided for her said Children respectively as aforesaid it shall & may be lawful to & for the said Nicholas Tuite Seby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns at his or their discretion to pay & apply all or any part of the Interest Dividends & annual product of the portion or portions to which any such Child or Children may be entitled in expectancy for & towards his her or their maintenance & education & also to advance the whole or any part of such the expectant portion or portions of any such Child or Children for or towards his her or their preferment Establishment or advancement in the World] And in case there shall be no Child of the same Elizabeth Du Moulin by the said Andrew Du Moulin living at her decease who being a Son shall attain + [addition in margin not complete on photocopy, but probably “the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter shall attain”] that age or marry the said monies hereinbefore directed to be placed out at Interest shall be upon trust for such person or persons of any blood or kindred living at my decease as would by virtue of the statute of distribution have become entitled to my personal Estate in case I had died unmarried and Intestate & in such shares as they respectively would have been entitled to of & in the same And I direct that my Coach shall be sold by my Exors hereinafter named & the monies arising by such sale distributed amongst the poor in such manner as my Exors shall think proper [And I direct that within the space of six Calendar months after

[Page 7 commences]
my decease the Sum of Five thousand pounds four percent Bank Annuities shall be purchased or transferred by and out of my personal Estate & invested in the name or names of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns who shall stand & be possessed & interested of & in the same upon trust to pay the dividends & annual proceeds thereof into the proper hands of my said Niece Barbara Louise Baronne De Fages or to the hands of such person or persons excepting her present or any future husband as she shall from time to time by any writing under her hand but not by way of anticipation appoint to receive the same during her life the receipts of the said Barbara Louise De Fages or of such person or persons as she shall appoint as aforesaid to be alone sufficient discharges for the same to the intent that the same may be for her separate use independant [sic] of her present or any future husband And from & after her decease the said Five thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall be In trust for all & every the Child & Children of the said Barbara Louise De Fages living at her decease who being a Son or Sons shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter or Daughters shall attain that age or marry to be divided between or among them (if more than one) in equal shares And if there shall be but one such Child living at her decease who being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter shall attain that age or marry the whole to be In trust for that one Child Provided always & I declare my Will to be that after the decease of my said Niece Barbara Louise De Fages & in the mean time & until the vesting of the portions hereby provided for her said Children respectively as aforesaid it shall & may be lawful for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns at his or their disretion to pay & apply all or any part of the Interest dividends & annual product of the portion or portions to which any such Child or Children may be entitled in expectancy for & towards his her or their maintenance & education & also to advance the whole or any part of such the expectant portion or portions of any such Child or Children for or towards his her or their preferment establishment or advancement in the world And in case there shall be no Child of the said Barbara Louise De Fages living at her decease who being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter shall attain that age or marry then the said Sum of Five thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall be upon trust for Nicholas Selby Du Moulin the eldest son of the said Andrew Du Moulin in case he shall be living at the time of the determination of the proceeding [sic] trusts of the said Five thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities but not their use & for his Exors Admors & assigns to & for his & their own use & benefit But in case the said Nicholas Selby Du Moulin shall be then dead leaving issue of his body one or more Child or Children then living upon trust for such Child or Children of the said Nicholas Selby Du Moulin living at the time of

[Page 8 commences]
the determination of the proceeding [sic] trusts as being a Son or Sons shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a daughter or daughters shall attain that age or marry to be divided between or among them if more than one in equal shares & if there shall be but one such Child then living who being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a daughter shall attain that age or marry the whole to be In trust for that one Child Provided always & I declare my will to be that after the determination of the trusts preceding the trust last herein before declared in favor [sic] of the children of the said Nicholas Selby Du Moulin & in the mean time & until the vesting of the portions hereinbefore provided for his said Children respectively as aforesaid it shall & may be lawful for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns at his or their discretion to pay & apply all or any part of the Interest dividends & annual product of the portion or portions to which any such Child or Children may be entitled in expectancy for & towards his her or their maintenance and education And also to advance the whole or any part of such the expectant portion or portions of any such child or children for or towards his her or their preferment establishment or advancement in the world But in case the said Nicholas Selby Du Moulin shall be dead at the time of the determination of the trusts preceding the trust so limited to him as aforesaid without leaving any Child or Children living at the time of such determination as aforesaid or in case all & evry the child & children then living shall die before any of them being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter shall attain that age or marry then & in either of such cases the said Five thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall be upon trust for all & every such Daughter or Daughters of the said Andrew Du Moulin living at the time of the failure or determination of the trusts thereof herein before limited preceding the trust hereby declared for the benefit of such Daughter as shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry to be divided between or amongst them if more than one in equal shares & in case there shall be but one such Daughter then living who shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry then the whole to be upon trust for such one Daughter with power for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns after the failure or determination of the preceding trusts & in the mean time until the absolute vesting o the portions hereinbefore provided for such Daughters respectively as aforesaid to pay & apply all or any part of the expectant portion or portions of such Daughter or Daughters for & towards her or their maintenance & education And also to advance the whole or any part of such expectant portion or portions for or towards his her or their preferment establishment or advancement But in case all & singular the trusts hereinbefore declared of and concerning the said Sum of Five thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall fail to take effect or shall determine then in such case the said Five thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall from & aftersuch failure or determination remain & be upon trust for my said Great Niece Elizabeth Du Moulin God daughter her Exors

[Page 9 commences]
Admors & assigns And I direct that within the space of six calendar Months after my decease the Sum of two thousand pounds four pr. Cent Bank Annuities shall in like manner be purchased or transferred by & out of my personal Estate & invested in the name or names of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns who shall stand be possessed & interested of & in the same Upon trust to pay the dividends & annual proceeds thereof unto the said Andrew Du Moulin & his assigns for and during the term of his natural life & from & after his decease upon trust for all & every the child & children of the said Andrew Du Moulin living at the time of his decease or born in due time afterwards who being a Son or Sons shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter or Daughters shall attain that age or marry to be divided between or among them if more than one in equal shares And if there shall be but one such Child living at his decease or born in due time aftewards who being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a Daughter shall attain that age or marry the whole to be In trust for that Child] Provided always & I declare my Will to be that after the decease of the said Andrew Du Moulin & in the mean time & until the vesting of the portions hereinbefore provided for his said Children respectively as aforesaid it shall & may be lawful for the said Nicholas Tulte Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors & assigns at his or their discretion to pay & apply all or any part of the Interest Dividends & annual product of the portion or portions to which any such Child or Children may be entitled in expectancy for & towards his her or their maintenance & education & also to advance the whole or any part of such expectant portion or portions of any such Child or Children for or towards his her or their preferment establishment & advancement in the world And in case there shall be no Child of the said Andrew Du Moulin living at the time f his decease or born in due time afterwards who being a Son shall attain the age of twenty one years or being a daughter shall attain that age or marry then the said two thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall be upon trust for such person or persons of my blood or kindred living at my decease as would by virtue of the statute of distributions have become entitled to my personal Estate in case I had died unmarried and Intestate & in such shares as they respectively would have been entitled to of & in the same And I do further direct that within the space of six calendar months after my decease a life Sum of two thousand pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities shall be purchased or transferred out of my personal Estate & invested in the names or name of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns who shall be possessed & interested of & in the same

[Page 10 commences]
upon trust to pay the dividends & annual proceeds thereof unto my Nephew James Du Moulin now in America or his assigns for & during the term of his natural life & from & after his decease upon trust for George Du Moulin the second Son of my said Nephew Andrew Du Moulin his Exors Admors & assigns for his & their own use & benefit [And I do hereby also direct that the Sum of two thousand five hundred pounds five per Cent Bank Annuities shall within the space of six calendar months after my decease be purchased or transferred out of my personal Estate & invested in the names or name of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns who shall stand & be possessed & interested of & in the same upon trust for all & every the Daughter & Daughters of the said Andrew Du Moulin living at the time of his decease who shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry to be divided between or amongst them in equal shares if more than one & if there shall be but one such dauhter living at his decease who shall attain that age or marry then the whole to be upon trust for such one Daughter Provided always & I declare my Will to be that in the mean time until such Daughters respectively shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry it shall be lawful for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns at his or their discretion to pay & apply all or any part of the Interest & annual proceeds of the portion or portions to which any such Daughter or Daughters may be entitled in expectancy for and towards her & their maintenance & education & also to advance the whole or any part of such the expectant portion or portions of any such Daughter or Daughters for or towards her or their preferment establishment or advancement in the world And in case there shall be no Daughter of the said Andrew Du Moulin living at his decease who shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry the said two thousand five hundred pounds five per Cent Bank Annuities shall be upon trust for such person or persons of my blood or kindred living at my decease as would by virtue of the statute of distributions have become entitled to my personal Estate in case I had died unmarried & intestate & in such shares as they respectively would have been entitled to of & in the same] And I do hereby further direct that my Exors or the Exors for the time being of this my Will shall within the space of six calendar months after my decease by & out of my personal Estate purchase & transfer or cause to be transferred to the several Legatees hereinafter named the several legacies or proportions of Four per Cent Bank Annuities following that is to say To my Cousin Miss Barbara Rooke of Charles Street Manchester Square Spinster one thousand five hundred pounds four per Cent Bank Annuities To Francis Archdekin of Charles Street Manchester Square Nephew of the said Barbara Rooke five hundred pounds life Annuities to Mrs Agnes Wright of Llanherne House St. Columb’s in the County of Cornwall three hundred pounds

[Page 11 commences]
life Annuities To Mrs Swinbourne Daughter of the late Sir John Swinbourne Baronet deceased late residing at Montargis in France but now at Heath in the County of York two hundred pounds life Annuities To Mrs Augustine De Chabaune of Snape Hill near Wimbourne in the County of Dorset two hundred pounds life Annuities To the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright for the trouble they will have in the execution of the trusts of this my Will two hundred pounds life Annuities equally to be divided between them To Louis Baron De Fages of Windsor in the County of Berks my Nephew in law one hundred pounds life Annuities To Mary Minter my late Servant one hundred pounds life Annuities To my God daughter Constantia Slaughter of Bellevue Reading in the County of Berks one hundred pounds life Annuities To the Reverend Doctor Collingridge of Chepstow in the County of Monmouth one hundred pounds life Annuities To the Revd Mr Anthony Cocket of Burton Green near Ringwood Hants one hundred pounds life Annuities To my Godson loysius Last of (blank) Street near Manchester Square London Fifty pounds life Annuities To the Revd. Mr. Mortuaire residing at Stonor Park Fifty pounds life annuities To the Revd. William Barnes of Fisbury 1 [= Tisbury] near Wardour Castle in the County of Wilts Fifty pounds life annuities To the Revd. Philip Becquet lately residing with me Fifty pounds life Annuities And I give & bequeath the several legacies or Sums of lawful money of the United Kingdom as the same is current in England to the several persons herein after mentioned that is to say To six poor honest Men to be chosen by my Exors as Pall Bearers two Guineas apiece To Rachael Hedgenton my Cook Fifty pounds if she shall be living + [insert from margin “with me at my decease To Mary Osborne my Servant fifty pounds if she shall be living”] with me at my decease To the Revd. Mr. D’Ollard of Fingest in the County of Oxford for a ring Nineteen pounds nineteen shillings To John Favies of Bury St. Edmunds in the County of Suffolk Nineteen pounds Nineteen shillings To Louis Herode of Rumsey in the County of Hants commonly called Farge who was Servant to my late Uncle Sir Thomas Moore Baronet deceased ten pounds And I direct that the several above mentioned pecuniary Legacies shall be paid as soon as conveniently may be after my decease without Interest And I do hereby further declare & direct that the legacies hereinbefore bequeathed by me to the said Rachael Hedgenton & Mary Osborne shall be free & clear from all taxes & deductions whatsoever and particularly from the tax or duty on Legacies now payable or which shall or may become payable upon or in respect of the same respectively which said taxes or duties payable for or in respect thereof shall be paid and discharged by my Exors out of the residue of my personal Estate & Effects [And I do herey further declare & direct that in the event of my personal Estate not being sufficient for the payment of all the legacies Sums of money & stocks hereby bequeathed or directed to be purchased or transferred as aforesaid the same shall abate proportionately without regard to the order or precedency in which the same are given by this my Will And I do hereby give & bequeath all my monies securities

[Page 12 commences]
for money Goods Chattels Estate & Effects whatsoever & wheresoever not hereinbefore specifically or otherwise disposed of after payment of all my just debts Funeral & testamentary Expenses & the several legacies Sums of money & Stocks hereinbefore bequeathed & directed to be purchased or transferred as aforesaid as well as of the legacy Duties payable upon the said two legacies to Rachael Hedgenton & Mary Osborne respectively as aforesaid unto the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright their Exors Admors & assigns upon trust as soon as conveniently may be after my decease to sell dispose of collect & reinvest the same into money & to place out or invest tile monies therefrom arising in or upon Government or real Securities at Interest & to stand & be possessed and interested of & in the monies last hereinbefore directed to be invested or laced out at Interest upon such and the same trusts in favor [sic] or for the benefit of the Daughters of the said Andrew Du Moulin & with the like powers & authorities as hereinbefore mentioned expressed & declared of & concerning the said two thousand five hundred pounds five per Cent Bank Annuities herein before directed to be invested upon divers trusts in favor [sic] or for the benefit of such Daughter or Daughters And in case there shall be no Daughter of the said Andrew Du Moulin living at his decease who shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry thereupon trust for the said George Du Moulin the second Son of the said Andrew Du Moulin his Exors Admors & assigns to & for his & their own use & benefit] Provided always & I do hereby further declare & direct that it shall be lawful for the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or the Survivor of them his Exors Admors or assigns from time to time to alter vary and transpose the several Stocks Funds & Securities which shall for the time be standing in his or their name or names under or by virtue of this my Will until the same respectively shall become transferrable by virtue of the trusts & Directions herein before contained as often as he or they shall think proper provided that every such transposition be made with the consent of the person or persons for the time being entitled to the dividends interest & annul proceeds of the Stocks Funds or Securities respectively which shall be so altered varied or transposed as aforesaid such person or persons being of full age & during the minority or respective minorities of every person or persons for the time being entitled in expectancy as aforesaid with the consent of his her or their Guardian or Guardians for the time being And I do hereby give & devise unto etc the use of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright their heirs & assigns All such real Estates as are vested in me by way of Mortgage in order to enable him and them with the greater ease to collect & get in the monies thereby named & to apply the same upon the trusts of this my Will And I give unto & to the use of the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright their heirs & assigns all such real Estates as are vested in me upon any trust or trusts To hold the same upon the trusts thereof respectively And I declare & direct that if either of them the said

[Page 13 commences]
Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright or any future trustee shall die or refuse or decline to act in the trusts of this my Will then a new trustee may be appointed by the surviving or continuing trustess And the said trust Estates monies & premises shall in that case be conveyed & assigned so as to be vested in such new trustee & such surviving or continuing trustee upon the same trusts & withon the same powers as are hereinbefore mentioned & declared & so from time to time as often as that case shall happen And I appoint the said Nicholas Tuite Selby & John Wright Executors of this my Will And I declare that my said Exors & trustess & the trustees or trustee for the time being of this my Will shall not be answerable for involuntary losses & that they shall be allowed & may retain to & reimburse themselves all their costs & Charges damages & Expenses to be occasioned by the due execution of the trusts hereby in them disposed And I hereby revoke all my former Wills In Witness whereof I the said Dame Anastasia Manock have to this my last Will & testament contained in Eighteen sheets of paper set my hand & seal that is to say my hand to the first seventeen sheets thereof & my hand & seal to this Eighteenth & last sheet the seventh day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred & fourteen Anastasia Mannock (SS) Signed Sealed Published & declared by the said Testatrix Dame Anastasia Mannock as & for her last Will & testament in the presence of us who in her presence at her request & in the presence of each other have hereto subscribed our Names as Witnesses Jno. Chapman Surgeon Windsor James McBean Upholsterer Windsor John Secker Junr. Clerk to Mr. Secker Solicitor Windsor

Windsor 23d Janu. 1814

Messrs Selby & John Wright Esqrs. this I declare you will look on a fair Godicil to my Will -male by Mr. Barrett & Co. towards the beginning of last year when at Henley Oxon & it is to rectify a mistake in the legacy concerning Mrs. Barbra. Rooke in wch. I leave her my Gold Snuff Box I had given her one some years ago & it was a Brilliant Star she had given me the other mistake is that I had left all my common apparel to be divided between Rachael my Cook & Mary Osborne since wch. I have a good Maid & will have her by name Elizabeth Barwell come in for her share in the above things & my Gold Box is for Barbara L. De Fages As Witness my hand Anastasia Mannock

I likewise Desire Messrs. Selby & John Wright to give to Mrs. Charlotte Stuard of Lanhurne Cornwall £300 Mrs. Agnes Wright to whom I had left a legacy is since dead but will that it goes to her above friend & successor Charlotte Stuard As Witness my hand this 14th. day of March 1814.  Anastasia Mannock

9th May 1814

Appeared Personally William Last of South Street in the Parish of Saint Mary le bone in [Page ends here – presumably a further page describes the proving of the will.]

Oxfordshire & North Berkshire Protestation Returns and Tax Assessments, 1641–42

An article by Tony Hadland for Catholic Ancestor, February 1997

On the 3rd of May 1641, fifteen months before the outbreak of the Civil War, the House of Commons drew up a Protestation Oath with six stated objectives:

  • To defend “the true Reformed Protestant Religion, expressed in the doctrine of the Church of England, against all Popery and Popish Innovations”,
  • To defend “the Power and Privileges of Parliaments”,
  • To defend “His Majesty’s Royal Person, Honour and Estate”,
  • To defend “the lawful Rights and Liberties of the subjects, and every person that maketh this Protestation”,
  • To oppose and bring to punishment “all such as shall, either by Force, Practice, Counsels, Plots, Conspiracies or otherwise” oppose anything in the Protestation,
  • To preserve “the Union and Peace between the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland”.

All MPs immediately signed the Protestation.  The following day the House of Lords agreed it and all the Protestant Peers signed.  On the 30th July the House of Commons passed a resolution that all who refused the Protestation were unfit to hold office in Church or Commonwealth.

Nearly six months later, on the 19th January 1642 (New Style), Speaker William Lenthall, Protestant son of a west Oxfordshire Catholic and a nephew of the Jesuit martyr Robert Southwell, sent copies of the Protestation to the county sheriffs with these instructions:

  • The Sheriff and JPs were to meet as soon as possible and take the Oath,
  • The JPs were then to disperse to their respective county divisions and bring together the Minister, Constables, Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of every parish,
  • These officials were then to “very speedily call together the Inhabitants of their Parishes, both Householders and others, being of Eighteen Years of Age and upwards”, and to tender and witness the Oath, listing all who took and refused it,
  • The Sheriff was then to collate the returns from the various parishes.

Hence in February 1642 (NS) most adult males in England and Wales (and in a few cases, women as well) took the Oath.

Three months later a tax was raised which had a much lower threshold than typical Tudor or Stuart subsidies.  The Tax Assessments include men and women, and also absent landlords or nobility.  Recusants had to pay double and were therefore to be clearly identified.  If the recusant was below the tax threshold of £1 in land, £3 in goods or £10 a year in wages, he or she had to pay a poll tax of 2s 8d.

In December 1994 The Oxfordshire Record Society, in association with the Banbury Historical Society, published a new edition of the extant Oxfordshire Protestation Returns and Tax Assessments, combining them with those which have survived for the areas of north-western Berkshire absorbed into Oxfordshire in 1974.  Edited by Jeremy Gibson, whose name is well known to many family historians, the volume incorporates a much expanded version of the Oxfordshire Family History Society’s index of personal names of those taking the Oath.

What then does this book tell us about recusants?  One of the main reasons for the Protestation was to ascertain the number, location and names of Roman Catholics in the country.  Hence some contemporary Oxfordshire or Westminster official compiled a summary list of the county’s recusants, and this is reproduced on page 148 of the book. Sounds promising?

Well, yes and no!  Surprisingly, the list identifies papists in only 16 parishes, all concentrated in just four of Oxfordshire’s 14 hundreds.  As Jeremy Gibson points out in his introduction to the book there must have been recusants in other areas, so it seems unlikely that the other returns reached the compiler of the vital summary.

In fact, the Protestation Returns have survived for only seven of the 14 hundreds of Oxfordshire – Bampton, Bloxham, Chadlington and Wooton in the north and west of the county, and Langtree and Binfield in the south. For former north-west Berkshire the only surviving returns are for the three hundreds of Moreton, Ock and Hormer, which comprised the Abingdon Division.  In both counties the borough returns – for Abingdon itself, Banbury, Wallingford, Woodstock and Oxford – are missing. (The University returns survive however, and are in the book.)

What is remarkable (although it is not picked up in the book) is the strong correlation between missing Protestation Returns and the locations in Oxfordshire and former north-west Berkshire where manor-based Catholicism survived.  For example, the Berkshire returns are missing for East Hendred (home of the Eystons) and Buckland (seat of the Yates).  Similarly, in Oxfordshire, the returns for Pyrton hundred (including Stonor), Dorchester (home of the recusant yeoman families Day, Davey and Prince), Ewelme (Simeons of Britwell), Bullingdon (Powells of Sandford-on-Thames and Cursons of Waterperry), Lewknor (Belsons of Aston Rowant) and Ploughley (Fermors of Somerton, Tusmore and Hardwick) are all missing.

Even among the hundreds for which Protestation Returns have survived, various parishes are missing.  Here again, of the eight missing in the south of Oxfordshire, half are parishes where Catholic gentry held land or resided, viz.  Shiplake (Plowdens), Checkendon (Hildesleys of Littlestoke), Mapledurham (Blounts) and Whitchurch (Hydes of Purley-on-Thames).

So, it is important to note that, in Oxfordshire and former north-west Berkshire, Protestation Returns are not extant for the vast majority of locations with classic manor-based Catholic survivals.  Indeed, the negative correlation is so strong that it suggests more than mere coincidence.  Was there, perhaps, a very effective and concerted closing of ranks and “nobbling” of petty parish officials by the Catholic gentry – stimulated by the knowledge that on 16th April 1642 the House of Commons had appointed a committee to consider what to do about the recusants identified in the Protestation Returns?

Some care is also needed in referring to the consolidated Oxfordshire List of Recusants in respect of the entries for Witney.  This was a major centre of population but not one with a significant Catholic population.  But if the list is taken at face value, Witney was the recusant capital of the county, twenty-two Witney men being listed.  Yet of these, only one is specifically identified as a recusant, and only three others even have surnames associated with recusancy in that area.  In fact, it seems that all the sick and elderly who were unable to take the Oath were lumped in with Witney’s one known recusant!

Nonetheless, despite these intriguing inconsistencies, there is still much of interest to the recusant hunter, especially concerning the north and west of Oxfordshire.  For example, we learn from the Protestation Return for the parish of Asthall in Bampton Hundred that Edward Saunders and his wife Mary refused the Oath, as did the widow Elizabeth Cooke.  From the Tax Assessment we receive confirmation that Mr and Mrs Saunders were recusants and that so too was Mr Saunders’ servant John (surname not recorded), for which the latter paid the 2s 8d poll tax.  Further, the assessment shows that John and Edward Saunders jointly held a farm of Mr Field.  Referring back to the Protestation Return, we see that John Saunders, unlike his recusant relative (brother’?) Edward, not only took the Oath but was one of the churchwardens whose task it was to administer and witness it!

The widow Cooke is not mentioned in the Tax Assessment but there is a reference to Sir Robert Cooke, presumably an absent landlord.  He is not listed as a recusant but was presumably a relative, perhaps a son.  Were these Cookes related to the martyred abbot of Reading, Blessed Hugh Faringdon, whose family name was Cook and who came from Faringdon, just across the Thames from Bampton?

In the same hundred, but at Brize Norton, the Protestation Return identifies as recusants the two Thomas Greenwoods, Senior and Junior, along with Richard Todkill and William Linee.  The first three are clearly gentry, being prefixed “Mr”.  Turning to the Tax Assessments, the Greenwoods (who had a recusant pedigree stretching back to the 1570s and who remained in the area until 1769, being served latterly by the Benedictines) are identified both as gentry and recusants.  So too was Richard Tadkine – though whether this version of his name was more or less correct than Todkill, I do not know.  Wilham Lyngin (cf Linee) is listed as the recusant servant of Mr Greenwood Senior, as is Ellen Messenger.  Further, we learn that Mt Greenwood Senior “farmeth of Mr Tempest”.  The latter held land in the area and was related to the Tempests of Holmeside, Co. Durham, who had been involved in the Northern Rebellion of 1569.

In the Abingdon Division of Berkshire at Lyford, scene of the arrest of St Edmund Campion 61 years earlier (and therefore just about within living memory), Thomas Yate(s) and his son William refused the oath, as did William Cullam, a husbandman.

However, a number of Catholics, perhaps church papists, appear to have taken the Oath.  At Henley-on-Thames, Richard Stonor1 is listed as doing so; and at the nearby Stonor manor of Rotherfield Peppard (later bought by a Hildesley) Richard Ilsley (= Hildesley) did the same.  Neither was listed as a recusant, although it seems probable they were both Catholics.  But taking the oath was no guarantee that a known recusant would escape identification in the Protestation Returns, as Richard Hyde and two other recusants discovered at Standlake.

Other approaches to the Oath included that of:

  • John Phippes of Charlbury who “simplye refuseth not but demurres upon it as pretending not to understand what is meant by the true reformed Protestant religion”, and
  • Ralph Sheldon of Steeple Barton, who with his family asserted to the Protestation except in respect of “one clause of religion standing in opposition to what they professe, being the religion of the Church of Rome”.

These are just a few tasters of what can be found by careful perusal of this book – a very worthwhile investment for anyone interested in the recusant history of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and highly recommended.  Copies can be obtained by sending a cheque for £17 (£15 for the book plus £2 post & packing) made payable to “The Oxfordshire Record Society”, to S R Tomlinson Esq, Hon. Sec., The Oxfordshire Record Society, c/o Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG.


Footnote

1. The Hon. Georgina Stonor advises me that there was no recorded Richard Stonor. It is possible that this was an alias used by the Stonor’s relative Richard Ilsley, perhaps to confuse the authorities.


Reference

Gibson, J.S.W. (Ed), Oxfordshire and North Berkshire Protestation Returns and Tax Assessments 1641-2, The Oxfordshire Record Society, Volume 59, 1994